Stay up-to-date with the most recent information on the negotiation status of each First Nation
Modern Treaties constitutionally-protect the recognition of the Indigenous rights and title and reconcile pre-existing Indigenous sovereignty with assumed Crown sovereignty.
They are living agreements capable of evolving over time based on the co-existence of Indigenous and Crown governments and the ongoing process of reconciliation. Treaties do not extinguish the rights, including title, in form or result.
To learn about why treaties are negotiated, visit the Why Treaties page.
The BC treaty negotiations process is voluntary and open to all First Nations in British Columbia. There are 65 self-determining First Nations, representing 110 Indian Act bands in BC, that have entered and participated in, or have completed treaties through the treaty negotiations process.
Currently there are 37 self-determining First Nations, representing 65 current or former Indian Act bands that are in active or completed negotiations.
For the most recent information on negotiations, please see the latest annual report and visit the Negotiations Update page.
The Treaty Commission and the made-in-BC treaty negotiations process were established in 1992 by agreement among Canada, British Columbia, and the First Nations Summit (the Principals). Negotiations are guided by those agreements and the Report of the British Columbia Claims Task Force 1991, which is the blueprint for the made-in-BC treaty process.
The Treaty Commission and the negotiations process were designed to advance negotiations and facilitate fair and durable treaties and agreements. Recent developments have improved and transformed negotiations, addressing outstanding issues around extinguishment, recognition, and living agreements. The Treaty Commission facilitates the negotiations of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements through incremental and comprehensive approaches.
For more information on the made-in-BC process, and negotiations pathways, see Negotiations Process.
There are three Principals to the BC treaty negotiations process: the government of Canada, the government of British Columbia, and the First Nations Summit.
At each negotiation table there are three Parties that participate in the negotiations: the federal government, the provincial government, and individual or collective First Nation(s).
Learn more information about the roles and responsibilities of the Principals and the Parties.
Aboriginal rights in Canada and recognition by the British Crown through treaties with First Nations has had a challenging history.
Despite Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 affirming the existence of Aboriginal title and rights, uncertainty remains surrounding application in British Columbia. The BC treaty negotiations process seeks to provide clarity and resolution on issues related to the ownership of land and resources in now BC, and is open to all First Nations with traditional territories in BC.
To read more about Aboriginal rights and title, and landmark court cases, see Aboriginal and Treaty Rights.
Reconciliation is the collective responsibility of all Canadians and treaty-making is an important part of the fabric of our country. Everyone has a role in supporting reconciliation and learning about our shared history and current efforts to recognize and protect Indigenous rights, and we encourage to learn more.
Visit our FAQ page for a collection of the most commonly asked questions about the negotiations process and the BC Treaty Commission.